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Blay JY, Bonvalot S, Casali P, Choi H, Debiec-Richter M, Dei Tos AP, Emile JF, Gronchi A, Hogendoorn PC, Joensuu H, Le Cesne A, McClure J, Maurel J, Nupponen N, Ray-Coquard I, Reichardt P, Sciot R, Stroobants S, van Glabbeke M, van Oosterom A, Demetri GD; GIST consensus meeting panelists.
Consensus meeting for the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Report of the GIST Consensus Conference of 20-21 March 2004, under the auspices of ESMO.
Ann Oncol. 2005 Apr;16(4):566-78. 
PMID: 15781488  (free access in PubMed)

Corless CL, Fletcher JA, Heinrich MC.
Biology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
J Clin Oncol. 2004 Sep 15;22(18):3813-25.
PMID: 15365079

DeMatteo, RP (editor).
Multidisciplinary Management of Primary and Metastatic GIST
Highlights from an educational activity offered during the Society of Surgical Oncology’s 2008 Annual Cancer Symposium, March 13-16, 2008 in Chicago, Illinois.


Demetri, GD. 
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors. 
Chapter 29 in VT DeVita Jr., S Hellman, and SA Rosenberg (editors), Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 7th edition.  Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.

Gold JS and DeMatteo RP.
Combined Surgical and Molecular Therapy: The Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Model
Ann Surg. 2006 August; 244(2): 176–184.
free access throgh PubMed - click title to link.

Miettinen M, Lasota J.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: review on morphology, molecular pathology, prognosis, and differential diagnosis.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006 Oct;130(10):1466-78. PMID: 17090188
See special link to this full paper in our Ask the Professional section (click title above).

NCCN, National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 
Soft Tissue Sarcoma Guidelines 

NCCN, National Comprehensive Cancer Network
NCCN Task Force Report: Optimal Management of Patients with GIST -- Update of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines.

van der Zwan SM, DeMatteo RP.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: 5 years later.
Cancer. 2005 Nov 1;104(9):1781-8.
PMID: 16136600 (free access via PubMed link)

von Mehren M, Watson JC.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2005 Jun;19(3):547-64, vii.
PMID: 15939196


Andersson J, Bumming P, Meis-Kindblom JM, Sihto H, Nupponen N, Joensuu H, Oden A, Gustavsson B, Kindblom LG, Nilsson B.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors with KIT exon 11 deletions are associated with poor prognosis.
Gastroenterology. 2006 May;130(6):1573-81.  PMID: 16697720

Andersson J, Sihto H, Meis-Kindblom JM, Joensuu H, Nupponen N, Kindblom LG.
NF1-associated gastrointestinal stromal tumors have unique clinical, phenotypic, and genotypic characteristics.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Sep;29(9):1170-6.  PMID: 16096406

Antonescu CR, Besmer P, Guo T, Arkun K, Hom G, Koryotowski B, Leversha MA, Jeffrey PD, Desantis D, Singer S, Brennan MF, Maki RG, DeMatteo RP.
Acquired resistance to imatinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumor occurs through secondary gene mutation.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 1;11(11):4182-90.  PMID: 15930355

Antonescu CR, Sommer G, Sarran L, Tschernyavsky SJ, Riedel E, Woodruff JM, Robson M, Maki R, Brennan MF, Ladanyi M, DeMatteo RP, Besmer P.
Association of KIT exon 9 mutations with nongastric primary site and aggressive behavior: KIT mutation analysis and clinical correlates of 120 gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15;9(9):3329-37.  PMID: 12960119

Appelman HD.
The Carney Triad: a lesson in observation, creativity, and perseverance.
Mayo Clin Proc. 1999 Jun;74(6):638-40.  PMID: 10377941

Bates AW, Feakins RM, Scheimberg I.
Congenital gastrointestinal stromal tumour is morphologically indistinguishable from the adult form, but does not express CD117 and carries a favourable prognosis.
Histopathology. 2000 Oct;37(4):316-22. PMID: 11012738

Bearzi I, Mandolesi A, Arduini F, Costagliola A, Ranaldi R.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A study of 158 cases: clinicopathological features and prognostic factors.
Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2006 Jun;28(3):137-47.
PMID: 16786723

Beghini A, Tibiletti MG, Roversi G, Chiaravalli AM, Serio G, Capella C, Larizza L.
Germline mutation in the juxtamembrane domain of the kit gene in a family with gastrointestinal stromal tumors and urticaria pigmentosa.
Cancer. 2001 Aug 1;92(3):657-62.  PMID: 11505412

Belics Z, Csapo Z, Szabo I, Papay J, Szabo J, Papp Z.
Large gastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting as an ovarian tumor. A case report.
J Reprod Med. 2003 Aug;48(8):655-8.  PMID: 12971151

Blay JY, Bonvalot S, Casali P, Choi H, Debiec-Richter M, Dei Tos AP, Emile JF, Gronchi A, Hogendoorn PC, Joensuu H, Le Cesne A, McClure J, Maurel J, Nupponen N, Ray-Coquard I, Reichardt P, Sciot R, Stroobants S, van Glabbeke M, van Oosterom A, Demetri GD; GIST consensus meeting panelists.
Consensus meeting for the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Report of the GIST Consensus Conference of 20-21 March 2004, under the auspices of ESMO.
Ann Oncol. 2005 Apr;16(4):566-78. PMID: 15781488

Blay P, Astudillo A, Buesa JM, Campo E, Abad M, Garcia-Garcia J, Miquel R, Marco V, Sierra M, Losa R, Lacave A, Brana A, Balbin M, Freije JM.
Protein kinase C theta is highly expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors but not in other mesenchymal neoplasias.
Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Jun 15;10(12 Pt 1):4089-95.  PMID: 15217944

Borden EC, Baker LH, Bell RS, Bramwell V, Demetri GD, Eisenberg BL, Fletcher CD, Fletcher JA, Ladanyi M, Meltzer P, O'Sullivan B, Parkinson DR, Pisters PW, Saxman S, Singer S, Sundaram M, van Oosterom AT, Verweij J, Waalen J, Weiss SW, Brennan MF.
Soft tissue sarcomas of adults: state of the translational science.
Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Jun;9(6):1941-56. PMID: 12796356

Carney JA, Stratakis CA.
Familial paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma: a new syndrome distinct from the Carney triad.
Am J Med Genet. 2002 Mar 1;108(2):132-9. PMID: 11857563

Carney JA.
Gastric stromal sarcoma, pulmonary chondroma, and extra-adrenal paraganglioma (Carney Triad): natural history, adrenocortical component, and possible familial occurrence.
Mayo Clin Proc. 1999 Jun;74(6):543-52. PMID: 10377927

Chen H, Hirota S, Isozaki K, Sun H, Ohashi A, Kinoshita K, O'Brien P, Kapusta L, Dardick I, Obayashi T, Okazaki T, Shinomura Y, Matsuzawa Y, Kitamura Y.
Polyclonal nature of diffuse proliferation of interstitial cells of Cajal in patients with familial and multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumours.
Gut. 2002 Dec;51(6):793-6. PMID: 12427778

Chen LL, Trent JC, Wu EF, Fuller GN, Ramdas L, Zhang W, Raymond AK, Prieto VG, Oyedeji CO, Hunt KK, Pollock RE, Feig BW, Hayes KJ, Choi H, Macapinlac HA, Hittelman W, Velasco MA, Patel S, Burgess MA, Benjamin RS, Frazier ML.
A missense mutation in KIT kinase domain 1 correlates with imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Cancer Res. 2004 Sep 1;64(17):5913-9. PMID: 15342366

Cheng SP, Huang MJ, Yang TL, Tzen CY, Liu CL, Liu TP, Hsiao SC.
Neurofibromatosis with gastrointestinal stromal tumors: insights into the association.
Dig Dis Sci. 2004 Aug;49(7-8):1165-9. PMID: 15387340

Cho S, Kitadai Y, Yoshida S, Tanaka S, Yoshihara M, Yoshida K, Chayama K.
Deletion of the KIT gene is associated with liver metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach.
Int J Oncol. 2006 Jun;28(6):1361-7.  PMID: 16685437

Chompret A, Kannengiesser C, Barrois M, Terrier P, Dahan P, Tursz T, Lenoir GM, Bressac-De Paillerets B.
PDGFRA germline mutation in a family with multiple cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Gastroenterology. 2004 Jan;126(1):318-21. PMID: 14699510

Corless CL, Schroeder A, Griffith D, Town A, McGreevey L, Harrell P, Shiraga S, Bainbridge T, Morich J, Heinrich MC.
PDGFRA mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: frequency, spectrum and in vitro sensitivity to imatinib.
J Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug 10;23(23):5357-64. PMID: 15928335

Corless CL, Fletcher JA, Heinrich MC.
Biology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
J Clin Oncol. 2004 Sep 15;22(18):3813-25. PMID: 15365079

Cypriano MS, Jenkins JJ, Pappo AS, Rao BN, Daw NC.
Pediatric gastrointestinal stromal tumors and leiomyosarcoma.
Cancer. 2004 Jul 1;101(1):39-50. PMID: 15221987

Debiec-Rychter M, Sciot R, Le Cesne A, Schlemmer M, Hohenberger P, van Oosterom AT, Blay JY, Leyvraz S, Stul M, Casali PG, Zalcberg J, Verweij J, Van Glabbeke M, Hagemeijer A, Judson I; EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group; The Italian Sarcoma Group; Australasian GastroIntestinal Trials Group.
KIT mutations and dose selection for imatinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours.
Eur J Cancer. 2006 May;42(8):1093-103. PMID: 16624552

Debiec-Rychter M, Wasag B, Stul M, De Wever I, Van Oosterom A, Hagemeijer A, Sciot R.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) negative for KIT (CD117 antigen) immunoreactivity.
J Pathol. 2004 Apr;202(4):430-8. PMID: 15095270

Debiec-Rychter M, Dumez H, Judson I, Wasag B, Verweij J, Brown M, Dimitrijevic S, Sciot R, Stul M, Vranck H, Scurr M, Hagemeijer A, van Glabbeke M, van Oosterom AT; EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group.
Use of c-KIT/PDGFRA mutational analysis to predict the clinical response to imatinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours entered on phase I and II studies of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group.
Eur J Cancer. 2004 Mar;40(5):689-95. PMID: 15010069

Diment J, Tamborini E, Casali P, Gronchi A, Carney JA, Colecchia M.
Carney triad: case report and molecular analysis of gastric tumor.
Hum Pathol. 2005 Jan;36(1):112-6.  PMID: 15712189

Duensing A, Joseph NE, Medeiros F, Smith F, Hornick JL, Heinrich MC, Corless CL, Demetri GD, Fletcher CD, Fletcher JA.
Protein Kinase C theta (PKCtheta) expression and constitutive activation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).
Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 1;64(15):5127-31. PMID: 15289315

Duensing A, Medeiros F, McConarty B, Joseph NE, Panigrahy D, Singer S, Fletcher CD, Demetri GD, Fletcher JA.
Mechanisms of oncogenic KIT signal transduction in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).
Oncogene. 2004 May 13;23(22):3999-4006. PMID: 15007386

Durham MM, Gow KW, Shehata BM, Katzenstein HM, Lorenzo RL, Ricketts RR.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors arising from the stomach: a report of three children.
J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Oct;39(10):1495-9. PMID: 15486893

Emile JF, Theou N, Tabone S, Cortez A, Terrier P, Chaumette MT, Julie C, Bertheau P, Lavergne-Slove A, Donadieu J, Barrier A, Le Cesne A, Debuire B,
Lemoine A; Groupe d'Etude des GIST.
Clinicopathologic, phenotypic, and genotypic characteristics of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Jul;2(7):597-605.  PMID: 15224284

Fletcher CD, Berman JJ, Corless C, Gorstein F, Lasota J, Longley BJ, Miettinen M, O'Leary TJ, Remotti H, Rubin BP, Shmookler B, Sobin LH, Weiss SW.
Diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: A consensus approach.
Hum Pathol. 2002 May;33(5):459-65. PMID: 12094370

Fuller CE, Williams GT.
Gastrointestinal manifestations of type 1 neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease).
Histopathology. 1991 Jul;19(1):1-11. PMID: 1916682

Geramizadeh B, Bahador A, Ganjei-Azar P, Asadi A.
Neonatal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Report of a case and review of literature.
J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Mar;40(3):572-4. PMID: 15793738

Ghrist TD.
Gastrointestinal involvement in neurofibromatosis.
Arch Intern Med. 1963 Sep;112:357-62. PMID: 14045280

Giuly JA, Picand R, Giuly D, Monges B, Nguyen-Cat R.
Von Recklinghausen disease and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Am J Surg. 2003 Jan;185(1):86-7. PMID: 12531453

Handra-Luca A, Flejou JF, Molas G, Sauvanet A, Belghiti J, Degott C, Terris B.
Familial multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumours with associated abnormalities of the myenteric plexus layer and skeinoid fibres.
Histopathology. 2001 Oct;39(4):359-63. PMID: 11683935

Hartmann K, Wardelmann E, Ma Y, Merkelbach-Bruse S, Preussner LM, Woolery C, Baldus SE, Heinicke T, Thiele J, Buettner R, Longley BJ.
Novel germline mutation of KIT associated with familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis.
Gastroenterology. 2005 Sep;129(3):1042-6.
PMID: 16143141

Hasegawa T, Matsuno Y, Shimoda T, Hirohashi S.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: consistent CD117 immunostaining for diagnosis, and prognostic classification based on tumor size and MIB-1 grade.
Hum Pathol. 2002 Jun;33(6):669-76. PMID: 12152168

Heinrich MC, Corless CL.
Gastric GI stromal tumors (GISTs): the role of surgery in the era of targeted therapy.
J Surg Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;90(3):195-207; discussion 207. PMID: 15895440

Heinrich MC, Corless CL, Demetri GD, Blanke CD, von Mehren M, Joensuu H, McGreevey LS, Chen CJ, Van den Abbeele AD, Druker BJ, Kiese B, Eisenberg B, Roberts PJ, Singer S, Fletcher CD, Silberman S, Dimitrijevic S, Fletcher JA.
Kinase mutations and imatinib response in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
J Clin Oncol. 2003 Dec 1;21(23):4342-9. PMID: 14645423

Heinrich MC, Corless CL, Duensing A, McGreevey L, Chen CJ, Joseph N, Singer S, Griffith DJ, Haley A, Town A, Demetri GD, Fletcher CD, Fletcher JA.
PDGFRA activating mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Science. 2003 Jan 31;299(5607):708-10.  PMID: 12522257

Hirota S, Ohashi A, Nishida T, Isozaki K, Kinoshita K, Shinomura Y, Kitamura Y.
Gain-of-function mutations of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha gene in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Gastroenterology. 2003 Sep;125(3):660-7. PMID: 12949711

Hirota S, Okazaki T, Kitamura Y, O'Brien P, Kapusta L, Dardick I.
Cause of familial and multiple gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors with hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal is germline mutation of the c-kit gene.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Feb;24(2):326-7. PMID: 10680913

Hirota S, Isozaki K, Moriyama Y, Hashimoto K, Nishida T, Ishiguro S, Kawano K, Hanada M, Kurata A, Takeda M, Muhammad Tunio G, Matsuzawa Y, Kanakura Y,
Shinomura Y, Kitamura Y.
Gain-of-function mutations of c-kit in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Science. 1998 Jan 23;279(5350):577-80. PMID: 9438854

Hornick JL, Fletcher CD.
Immunohistochemical staining for KIT (CD117) in soft tissue sarcomas is very limited in distribution.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2002 Feb;117(2):188-93. PMID: 11865845

Hornick JL, Fletcher CD.
Validating immunohistochemical staining for KIT (CD117).
Am J Clin Pathol. 2003 Mar;119(3):325-7.  PMID: 12645332

Hornick JL, Fletcher CD.
The significance of KIT (CD117) in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2004 Apr;12(2):93-7. PMID: 15173913

Huss S, Künstlinger H, Wardelmann E, Kleine MA, Binot E, Merkelbach-Bruse S, Rüdiger T, Mittler J, Hartmann W, Büttner R, Schildhaus HU.
A subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors previously regarded as wild-type tumors carries somatic activating mutations in KIT exon 8 (p.D419del).
Mod Pathol. 2013 Jul;26(7):1004-12. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2013.47.
PubMed PMID: 23599150; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3701292.  free access

Igwilo OC, Byrne MP, Nguyen KD, Atkinson J.
Malignant gastric stromal tumor: unusual metastatic patterns.
South Med J. 2003 May;96(5):512-5. PMID: 12911195

Irving JA, Lerwill MF, Young RH.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors metastatic to the ovary: a report of five cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Jul;29(7):920-6. PMID: 15958857

Isozaki K, Terris B, Belghiti J, Schiffmann S, Hirota S, Vanderwinden JM.
Germline-activating mutation in the kinase domain of KIT gene in familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Am J Pathol. 2000 Nov;157(5):1581-5. PMID: 11073817

Kang DY, Park CK, Choi JS, Jin SY, Kim HJ, Joo M, Kang MS, Moon WS, Yun KJ, Yu ES, Kang H, Kim KM.
 Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors: Clinicopathologic and genetic analysis of 12 patients.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Feb;31(2):224-32.  PMID: 17255767

Kerr JZ, Hicks MJ, Nuchtern JG, Saldivar V, Heim-Hall J, Shah S, Kelly DR, Cain WS, Chintagumpala MM.
Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors in the pediatric population: a report of four cases and a review of the literature.
Cancer. 1999 Jan 1;85(1):220-30. PMID: 9921996

Kindblom LG, Remotti HE, Aldenborg F, Meis-Kindblom JM.
Gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor (GIPACT): gastrointestinal stromal tumors show phenotypic characteristics of the interstitial cells of Cajal.
Am J Pathol. 1998 May;152(5):1259-69. PMID: 9588894

Kim KM, Kang DW, Moon WS, Park JB, Park CK, Sohn JH, Jeong JS, Cho MY, Jin SY, Choi JS, Kang DY.
PKC theta expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Mod Pathol. 2006 Aug 4; [Epub ahead of print]  PMID: 16892012

Kitamura Y, Hirotab S.
Kit as a human oncogenic tyrosine kinase.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004 Dec;61(23):2924-31. PMID: 15583854

Knop S, Schupp M, Wardelmann E, Stueker D, Horger MS, Kanz L, Einsele H, Kroeber SM.
A new case of Carney triad: gastrointestinal stromal tumours and leiomyoma of the oesophagus do not show activating mutations of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}.
J Clin Pathol. 2006 Oct;59(10):1097-9.  PMID: 17021135

Lasota J, Miettinen M.
A New Familial GIST Identified.
Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30(10): 1342.  PMID 1700171

Lasota J, Wozniak A, Kopczynski J, Dansonka-Mieszkowska A, Wasag B, Mitsuhashi T, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Lee JR, Schneider-Stock R, Stachura J, Limon J,
Miettinen M.
Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 22q in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): a study on 50 cases.
Lab Invest. 2005 Feb;85(2):237-47. PMID: 15580284

Lasota J, Kopczynski J, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Schneider-Stock R, Stachura T, Kordek R, Michal M, Boltze C, Roessner A, Stachura J, Miettinen M.
KIT 1530ins6 mutation defines a subset of predominantly malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors of intestinal origin.
Hum Pathol. 2003 Dec;34(12):1306-12. PMID: 14691917

Lee JL, Kim JY, Ryu MH, Kang HJ, Chang HM, Kim TW, Lee H, Park JH, Kim HC, Kim JS, Kang YK.
Response to imatinib in KIT- and PDGFRA-wild type gastrointestinal stromal associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.
Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Jun;51(6):1043-6. No abstract available.  PMID: 16865565

Levy AD, Patel N, Abbott RM, Dow N, Miettinen M, Sobin LH.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis: imaging features with clinicopathologic correlation.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004 Dec;183(6):1629-36. PMID: 15547202

Li FP, Fletcher JA, Heinrich MC, Garber JE, Sallan SE, Curiel-Lewandrowski C, Duensing A, van de Rijn M, Schnipper LE, Demetri GD.
Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumor syndrome: phenotypic and molecular features in a kindred.
J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 20;23(12):2735-43. PMID: 15837988

Li P, Wei J, West AB, Perle M, Greco MA, Yang GC.
 Epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach with liver metastases in a 12-year-old girl: aspiration cytology and molecular study.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2002 Jul-Aug;5(4):386-94.
PMID: 12198577

Lux ML, Rubin BP, Biase TL, Chen CJ, Maclure T, Demetri G, Xiao S, Singer S, Fletcher CD, Fletcher JA.
KIT extracellular and kinase domain mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Am J Pathol. 2000 Mar;156(3):791-5. PMID: 10702394

Maertens O, Prenen H, Debiec-Rychter M, Wozniak A, Sciot R, Pauwels P, De Wever I, Vermeesch JR, de Raedt T, De Paepe A, Speleman F, van Oosterom A, Messiaen L, Legius E.
Molecular pathogenesis of multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors in NF1 patients.
Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Mar 15;15(6):1015-23. PMID: 16461335

Martin J, Poveda A, Llombart-Bosch A, Ramos R, Lopez-Guerrero JA, Garcia del Muro J, Maurel J, Calabuig S, Gutierrez A, Gonzalez de Sande JL, Martinez J, De Juan A, Lainez N, Losa F, Alija V, Escudero P, Casado A, Garcia P, Blanco R, Buesa JM; Spanish Group for Sarcoma Research.
Deletions affecting codons 557-558 of the c-KIT gene indicate a poor prognosis in patients with completely resected gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a study by the Spanish Group for Sarcoma Research (GEIS).
J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;23(25):6190-8. PMID: 16135486

Medeiros F, Corless CL, Duensing A, Hornick JL, Oliveira AM, Heinrich MC, Fletcher JA, Fletcher CD.
KIT-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumors: proof of concept and therapeutic implications.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2004 Jul;28(7):889-94. PMID: 15223958

Miettinen M, Lasota J.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: review on morphology, molecular pathology, prognosis, and differential diagnosis.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006 Oct;130(10):1466-78. PMID: 17090188
See special link to this full paper in our Ask the Professional section (click title above).

Miettinen M, Lasota J.
KIT (CD117): a review on expression in normal and neoplastic tissues, and mutations and their clinicopathologic correlation.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2005 Sep;13(3):205-20. PMID: 16082245

Miettinen M, El-Rifai W, H  L Sobin L, Lasota J.
Evaluation of malignancy and prognosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a review.
Hum Pathol. 2002 May;33(5):478-83. PMID: 12094372

Miettinen M, Sobin LH, Sarlomo-Rikala M.
Immunohistochemical spectrum of GISTs at different sites and their differential diagnosis with a reference to CD117 (KIT).
Mod Pathol. 2000 Oct;13(10):1134-42. PMID: 11048809

Miettinen M, Sobin LH, Lasota J.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach: a clinicopathologic,immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 1765 cases with long-term follow-up.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Jan;29(1):52-68. PMID: 15613856

Miettinen M, Kopczynski J, Makhlouf HR, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Gyorffy H, Burke A, Sobin LH, Lasota J.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, intramural leiomyomas, and leiomyosarcomas in the duodenum: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 167 cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 May;27(5):625-41. PMID: 12717247

Miettinen M, Sobin LH.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the appendix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of four cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2001 Nov;25(11):1433-7. PMID: 11684962

Miettinen M, Furlong M, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Burke A, Sobin LH, Lasota J.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, intramural leiomyomas, and leiomyosarcomas in the rectum and anus: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 144 cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2001 Sep;25(9):1121-33. PMID: 11688571

Miettinen M, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Sobin LH, Lasota J.
Esophageal stromal tumors: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 17 cases and comparison with esophageal leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Feb;24(2):211-22. PMID: 10680889

Miettinen M, Monihan JM, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Kovatich AJ, Carr NJ, Emory TS, Sobin LH.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors/smooth muscle tumors (GISTs) primary in the omentum and mesentery: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 1999 Sep;23(9):1109-18. PMID: 10478672

Motegi A, Sakurai S, Nakayama H, Sano T, Oyama T, Nakajima T.
PKC theta, a novel immunohistochemical marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), especially useful for identifying KIT-negative tumors.
Pathol Int. 2005 Mar;55(3):106-12. PMID: 15743318

Nakamura N, Yamamoto H, Yao T, Oda Y, Nishiyama K, Imamura M, Yamada T, Nawata H, Tsuneyoshi M.
Prognostic significance of expressions of cell-cycle regulatory proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumor and the relevance of the risk grade.
Hum Pathol. 2005 Jul;36(7):828-37.  PMID: 16084954

Nishida T, Hirota S, Taniguchi M, Hashimoto K, Isozaki K, Nakamura H, Kanakura Y, Tanaka T, Takabayashi A, Matsuda H, Kitamura Y.
Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumours with germline mutation of the KIT gene.
Nat Genet. 1998 Aug;19(4):323-4. PMID: 9697690

O'Brien P, Kapusta L, Dardick I, Axler J, Gnidec A.
Multiple familial gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors and small intestinal neuronal dysplasia.
Am J Surg Pathol. 1999 Feb;23(2):198-204. PMID: 9989847

Orosz Z, Tornoczky T, Sapi Z.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 136 cases.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2005;11(1):11-21. PMID: 15800677

Parfitt JR, Streutker CJ, Riddell RH, Driman DK.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: A contemporary review.
Pathol Res Pract. 2006;202(12):837-47. Epub 2006 Oct 24.  PMID: 17064855

Pauls K, Merkelbach-Bruse S, Thal D, Buttner R, Wardelmann E.
PDGFRalpha- and c-kit-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are characterized by distinctive histological and immunohistochemical features.
Histopathology. 2005 Feb;46(2):166-75. PMID: 15693889

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