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Definition
p16p16 is a major tumor suppressor gene whose frequent loss occurs early in many human cancers. It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member the INK4 family - inhibitors of cyclin-dependentkinase CDK4. The function of the p16 protein has been implicated in cell cycle control, anoikis (cell death induced by loss of cell adherence or inappropriate cell adherence.), and senesence (an aging process in which cells can no longer divide).
p53The designation "p53" stands for "protein 53 kilodaltons" in size. p53 gene encodes a protein that regulates the cell cycle for division and growth, and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. It is very important for cells in multicellcular organisms to suppress cancer. P53 has been described as "the guardian of the genome", referring to its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation. The p53 gene is the most commonly mutated gene known in human cancer. Like other tumor-suppressor genes, p53 normally controls cell growth. If p53 is physically lost or is not functioning (because it has been inactivated), this may permit the cell to divide without restraint. Click below for an image of the P53 protein (from Wikipedia). linkhere
paragangliomaA tumor of the chromaffin cells. Paraganglioma is one component of Carney triad.
peristalsisThe movement by which the alimentary canal and other tubular organs propel their contents; it consists of a wave of contraction passing along the tube for variable distances. In the stomach, this motion mixes food with gastric juices, turning it into a thin liquid.
peritoneumThe membranous sac that supports the abdominal organs and provides thier blood supply.
pleomorphicMany-formed. When a tumor is called pleomorphic, it means that the tumor contains cells of different shapes or morphologies. A pleomorphic GIST could be composed of spindle cells (long thin shape), epithelioid cells (round or polygonal), and perhaps other cell types.
primary tumorA tumor that is at the original site where cancer first arose. For example, a primary brain tumor is one that arose in the brain as opposed to one that arose elsewhere and metastasized (spread) to the brain. The original tumor is sometimes called "the primary."
prognosisThe prediction of what is likely to happen in a disease; a forecast of the outcome of a disease.
proliferationProliferation is a growth of tissue by reproduction of cells through cell division. Cancer cells are very prolific; they have high rates of cell division, causing tumor growth. Most GISTs display inappropriate, overly active growth factor signals (KIT or PDGF) stimulating tumor cell proliferation.
PTENPhosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene. The PTEN protein modifies other proteins and lipids (fats) in cells by removing phosphate groups. The PTEN protein is a type of enzyme called phosphatase. When the PTEN enzyme is functioning properly, it acts as part of a chemical pathway that signals cells to stop dividing and causes cells to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) when necessary. These functions prevent uncontrolled cell growth that can lead to the formation of tumors. The PTEN gene may play a role in cell migration and adhesion of cells to surrounding tissues. Noninherited (somatic) mutations in the PTEN gene may play a role in the development of several types of cancer.


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