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GIST Support International - Glossary of Terms
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RECISTThis abbreviation stands for Response Criteria in Solid Tumors. It is a system or measuring tumor shrinkage or progression in terms of the longest dimensions of the tumor on imaging scans such as CT. A "partial response" requires a decrease of 30% or more in the longest dimension of a single tumor or in the sum of the longest dimensions of a group of target lesions. "Progression" requires an increase of at least 20% in the monitored longest dimension (or sum). "Stable disease" falls in between these two: a shrinkage of less than 30% or an increase of less than 20%. The RECIST guide is often used to quantify results in clinical trials. In GIST response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs such as imatinib or sunitinib, the RECIST method does not capture improvement in symptoms and quality of life, so it underestimates the benefit of drug therapy. For a free-access medical paper detailing the RECIST criteria, see this link: linkhere
rectumThe extreme lower end of the colon (large intestine) leading to the anus.
resectResect (verb), Resection (noun). To remove tissue an organ or tumor by surgery. Resect and excise are not synonymous. Excise implies total removal whereas resect need not. "R0" resection indicates complete removal of all tumor with microscopically clean margins. "R1" resection indicates that the margins of the resected parts show tumor cells when viewed microscopically. "R2" resection indicates that portions of tumor visible to the naked eye were not removed.
residueA term used to refer to a specific amino acid within a protein's structure. For example, the KIT protein is 976 amino acids in length. The normal (amino acid) "residue" at position 560 is valine.
retroperitoneumThe space between the posterior parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall, containing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, duodenum, ascending colon, descending colon, pancreas, and the large vessels and nerves. GISTs arising from the duodenum may be retroperitoneal.
RNAThe copy made of DNA prior to cell division. It can be thought of as a "working copy" of the master gene template. Prior to formation of the daughter cell, the RNA is reduced by discarding portions called introns and rejoining the remaining portions called exons to form messenger RNA (mRNA).
Roux-en-YThis surgical procedure is a form of gastrectomy that may be performed either for weight-loss purposes OR for cancer involving the stomach. When used to remove cancer, the Roux-en-Y procedure is a total gastrectomy in which the neck of the stomach (cut just below the esophageal sphincter) is joined to the small intestine, bypassing the normal route through the stomach and duodenum. The duodenum is cut off below the pylorus sphincter and the stomach is removed. The duodenum's connection to the small intestine is moved down, allowing liver bile and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum to reach the small intestine. The following link illustrates the before and after configurations of the GI tract. linkhere

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