Classification of gastrointestinal stromal tumor syndromes.    Gopie P, Mei L, Faber AC, Grossman SR, Smith SC, Boikos S.

Full text is open access at this link:    Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017 Nov 23. pii: ERC-17-0329. doi: 10.1530/ERC-17-0329.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, thought to derive from neoplastic outgrowth of the interstitial cells of Cajal. Building on recent advances in recognition, classification, and diagnosis, the past two decades have seen a changing paradigm with molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies. KIT and PDGFRA mutations account for 85-90% GIST carcinogenesis. However, the remaining 10-15% of GISTs which until recently were called KIT/PDGFRA wild type GISTs, have been found to have one of several mutations, including in the SDHA, B, C, D, BRAF and NF1 genes. Though most of such GISTs are sporadic, a number of families with high incidence of GISTs and other associated clinical manifestations have been reported and found to harbor germline mutations in KIT, PDGFRA, SDH subunits, and NF1. The goal of this review is to describe the mutations, clinical manifestations, and therapeutic implications of syndromic and inherited GISTs in light of recent studies of their clinicopathologic range and pathogenesis.